Social problem-solving and susceptibility to depression
Male and female subjects, identified as effective and ineffective social problem solvers, were randomly assigned to either learned helplessness induction (failure feedback) or a control procedure (success feedback) to examine the hypothesis that effective social problem solving skills may be associated with less depression after negative life stress. The effects of learned helplessness induction on self esteem and cognitive/motivational deficits were also examined. Generally, females reported more depression than males after learned helplessness induction regardless of social problem solving ability. Effective social problem solving ability was associated with less depression only for males after learned helplessness induction. Female ineffective social problem solvers displayed the most deficits in cognitive motivational/functioning after learned helplessness induction. Self esteem was positively correlated with depression, problem solving confidence and personal control, but was not affected by subject sex or training. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).