Non-human models of human immunodeficiency virus
Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, -2) to immortalized cell lines and primary cells from several non-human primates was attempted in vitro to establish target cell type and suitability of non-human primate species for in vivo inoculation. Based on these results, gibbon apes, rhesus monkeys and African green monkeys (AGM) were inoculated with HIV-1 or HIV-2. AGMs were not infected by HIV-1 or HIV-2 and some had only weak transient antibody responses. Gibbon apes were, however, readily infected by HIV-1 with strong antibody responses and varying degrees of clincal and immunohematological abnormalities. HIV-1-inoculated rhesus monkeys showed only serological responses, and suggestions of some other abnormalities in some animals. HIV-2 was found to infect rhesus monkeys with possible clinical effects but await further evaluation. While the gibbon ape is readily infected by HIV-1, it is an endangered species and thus unavailable for research. However, the rhesus monkey, infectable by HIV-2, could become an important model for human AIDS.