FACTORS AFFECTING CHLORINATION OF XAD-4 RESIN AND SYNTHESIS OF A COBALT ANTHRAQUINONE SUBSTITUTION INERT COMPLEX
Environmental mutagens are detected by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Chlorination of water produces mutagens and certain anthraquinones are mutagenic in the Ames test. This work investigated the conditions which influenced the production of artifactual mutagens when chlorine reacts with the resin used to concentrate water samples. Free chlorine reacted at higher rates with the XAD-4 resin and produced more artifactual mutagens than monochloramine did. Decreased pH below 7 resulted in faster resin chlorination and greater artifactual mutagenicity. Additional chloride ion in the reactant solution produced faster resin chlorination. Danthron, an anthraquinone which produces oxidative mutagens in the Ames assay, formed a substitution inert complex with cobalt. This complex may be equal to danthron in antineoplastic activity, but reduced in mutagenicity. It may be less biologically toxic to normal cells than other antitumor anthraquinone agents.