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Infinite Barriers and Symmetries for a Few Trapped Particles in One Dimension

posted on 2023-08-04, 06:06 authored by Nathan HarshmanNathan Harshman

This article investigates the properties of a few interacting particles trapped in a few wells and how these properties change under adiabatic tuning of interaction strength and interwell tunneling. While some system properties are dependent on the specific shapes of the traps and the interactions, this article applies symmetry analysis to identify generic features in the spectrum of stationary states of few-particle, few-well systems. Extended attention is given to a simple but flexible three-parameter model of two particles in two wells in one dimension. A key insight is that two limiting cases, hard-core repulsion and no interwell tunneling, can both be treated as emergent symmetries of the few-particle Hamiltonian. These symmetries are the mathematical consequences of infinite barriers in configuration space. They are necessary to explain the pattern of degeneracies in the energy spectrum, to understand how degeneracies are broken for models away from limiting cases, and to explain separability and integrability. These symmetry methods are extendable to more complicated models and the results have practical consequences for stable state control in few-particle, few-well systems with ultracold atoms in optical traps.





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