Modes of political participation in revolutionary Cuba
The study of political participation has traditionally focused almost exclusively upon developed western politics. Participation in under-developed nations was presumed to be restricted to elites, and participation in communist systems was regarded as "inauthentic." Recent studies have challenged these views and called for research to empirically establish the effects of participation in non-western systems. This article is a study of political participation in revolutionary Cuba which utilizes the conceptual apparatus developed by Nie and Verba's cross-national studies. After reviewing the conceptual and methodological problems of applying this framework to the Cuban case, the article attempts to ascertain: (1) the main participatory acts that Cubans engage in, and whether particular modes of participation can be identified; (2) how many Cubans avail themselves of various participatory opportunities; (3) what effect mass participation has on the political system; and (4) how these facets of political participation have evolved since 1959.